Archive for July, 2010

Godfrey of Bouillon

July 17, 2010

Godfrey of Bouillon (1060-1100), the French crusader was one of the principal lay leaders of the First Crusade and the first ruler of the new formed crusader state of Jerusalem.

He was the second son of the Count of Boulogne (Eustace II), and Ida, daughter of the Duke of Lower Lorraine (Godfrey II). After years of hold up Emperor Henry IV eventually affirmed him in the duchy of Lower Lorraine. When he and his brothers, Eustace and Baldwin, joined the First Crusade, Godfrey was even so accommodated to assurance his castle in Bouillon, also the lordship of Verdun, to the bishop of Liège, presumptively to help finance the dispatch.

The crusaders arrived at Constantinople shortly before Christmas Day, 1096. For many months there were promises and perfidies and armed brushes with the Byzantine flocks. Finally the totally force of crusaders, now big by the Norman contingent and Bohemund’s army, crossed the Bosporus and set out for Nicaea. When Jerusalem was appropriated in July 1099, the higher clergy and the bigger barons offered the crown to Godfrey, having failed to convince Count Raymond to take it. Godfrey acceptable the leadership but arrogated alternatively the title of Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri (Defender of the Holy Sepulcher). This made him lay guarantor of the newly won lands, allowing for the Church to preserve, initially, its own concerns. The ecclesiastic claims to Jerusalem and its dependant towns were boosted by the forceful Daimbert, Archbishop of Pisa, who, backed by Bohemund, became patriarch a abruptly time later. Godfrey, who in reality had little effectual power, acquired an oath of homage to Daimbert and managed to retain hold of his small state till his death on July 18, 1100, near Tiberias. Agreeing to Moslem sources, he was killed in combat.

Godfrey was the first european ruler in Jerusalem, and this doubtless aided form the legend in later literature in which he was transmuted into the model for the valorous Christian knight, the Chevalier au Cygne (Swan Knight). Dante, in the Divine Comedy, bases him with the warrior-saints in Paradise. There is, yet, no reliable attest for his unusual piety or for his extraordinary knightly qualities. His chief achievement remains the administration of a executable feudal brass in Jerusalem based on accustomed fief holding and oaths of allegiance. That he was capable to do this in the face of overt and continual hostility from allies and enemies tells much about the character of the man.

Bohemond

July 17, 2010

Bohemond (1050-1111) was the nickname, intending ‘Giant’, of Marc, firstborn son of Robert Guiscard who disinherited him afterward a second marriage. Bohemond served in Guiscard’s expedition versus Byzantium in 1083-5. His engagement in the First Crusade has been ascertained as the act of a baffled man but he delighted a strong attitude in southern Italy. The only leader of the Crusade to have compelled a major regular army, he distinguished himself militarily, fighting well at Dorylaeum on 1 July 1097, ensuring the defeat of a Damascene assuagement army in December 1097, and compelling at the Lake battle on 2 February 1098. He entered Antioch by betrayal on 1-2 June 1098 and led the crusaders to victory across Kerbogah on 28 July 1098. Because he kept Antioch, opposed to the curse of all the leaders to return it to Byzantium, and didn’t advance to Jerusalem, he has been ascertained as a cynical user of the crusade, as yet he visited Jerusalem at Christmas Day 1099.

In 1100 he was appropriated by the Turks. Discharged in 1103, he faced Byzantine attempts to regain Antioch, so he aroused a crusade in the West which attacked Byzantium in 1107. He was defeated and coerced to peace by the accord of Devol in September 1108, though Antioch stayed under his nephew Tancred. He died in southern Italy.

Raymond IV of Toulouse

July 17, 2010

Raymond IV (1038-1105), count of Toulouse (1093-1105), leader in the First Crusade. He was as well count of Saint Gilles and marquis of Provence. The first big prince to carry the Cross, he was the chief contriver and arranger of the expedition. He declined to follow Bohemond I and Godfrey of Bouillon in affirming fealty to the Byzantine emperor Alexius I, bounding himself to a anticipate (1097) to do no injury to the emperor’s life or honor. Raymond distinguished himself at the sieges of Nicaea, Antioch, and Jerusalem, but altercated (in vain) with Bohemond over the possession of Antioch. Having declined the title king of Jerusalem, he fought at Ashkelon (1099). Unable to protect his city of Laodicea versus Bohemond, he went to Constantinople to look for the aid of Alexius. After he was controlled prisoner by Tancred, who was acting as regent for Bohemond. At the end of his life, with Byzantine abide, he laid besieging to Tripoli, which was eventually formed into a county by his descendents.

Baldwin

July 17, 2010

Baldwin (1058 – 1118), a Norman cognised earlier as Baldwin of Boulogne and a head lay leader of the First Crusade, ruled as king of Jerusalem (1100 – 1118).

Baldwin conjoined the First Crusade with his brothers, Eustace and Godfrey of Bouillon. Baldwin shortly departed the primary army to constitute himself in Edessa (New Urfa, Turkey), a Byzantine town on the far side of the Euphrates River, at the invitation of the Armenian prince Thoros. Upon the latter’s death in 1098 Baldwin got head of the first crusading state in the East. His wife, Godvere of Tosni, died briefly before this successful adventure, and Baldwin soon attested his location by marrying an Armenian princess called Arda.

As Godfrey of Bouillon died in 1100, a group of military knights in Jerusalem enquired Baldwin to succeed him. This sequence was contradicted by the patriarch Daimbert, who willed to assert his ecclesiastic control of the city, and by the crusader Tancred, who was fishy of the use to which Baldwin might assign his new power. It is declarative of Baldwin’s durability that not only did he force Daimbert to crown him king (albeit in Bethlehem, not in Jerusalem), but he also kept Tancred at a distance till the latter departed the following year to accept the lordship of Antioch. In 1102 Baldwin deponed Daimbert, and his heirs were all royal appointments.

Baldwin then set about to make his military attitude more ensure. He had little efficient power until he was capable to hold the coastal towns, which were critical for communications and adds. He depended intemperately on the loyalty of the vassals of the big fiefs, such Tiberias, Haifa, and Caesarea, and to a lesser extent on mercenary flocks and ships from the Italian cities. Once controlled of the oaths of his knights, Baldwin embarked on a systematic decrease of the ports so that by 1113 he held all the significant ones in the locality of Jerusalem except Ascalon and Tyre. Although he still opposed Tancred, Baldwin wasn’t above conjoining him on leastwise 2 affairs, in 1109 and in 1112, when conservation of the kingdom made cooperation advisable.

Through 1113 Baldwin abandoned Queen Arda for (Adelaide of Salona), Countess of Sicily and mother of (Count Roger II). The historian is accommodated to see this as a political marriage which added a dowry and maybe an heir to the kingdom, since Roger II was called as successor. Baldwin had never been divorced of his previous wife, even so, and three years later he sanctioned the abrogation of his union with Adelaide at the price of the enmity of the Sicilian court. Baldwin died close Ascalon on a raiding military expedition in Egypt in April 1118. His heir in Jerusalem was his cousin, Baldwin II.

Baldwin I was an telling figure. By his personal authority, with bounded resources, and in the face of constant and powerful confrontation from Cairo, Damascus, and his own assorts, he accomplished and asserted the kingdom of Jerusalem for eighteen years.

Tancred

July 17, 2010

Tancred (1076-1112), western Crusader in the first crusade. He got a Crusader in 1096 with his uncle Bohemond I. After distinguishing himself at Nicaea, he crossed out into Cilicia and beleaguered Tarsus, but was divested of the city, after its return, by Baldwin (Baldwin I of Jerusalem) and was forced to come back the main army. He participated in the appropriates of Antioch (1098), Jerusalem (1099), and Haifa (1100) and was for a abruptly time prince of Galilee, with his capital at Tiberias. While working (1100-1103) as trustee of Antioch for Bohemond, he retook Laodicea and additional towns and captive Raymond IV of Toulouse. In 1104, after the appropriate of Baldwin II of Jerusalem by the Muslims, he absorbed the government of Edessa and, after the deviation of Bohemond for the West, the governance of Antioch. He after made copious conquerings in Cilicia and Northern Syria. Whilst Bohemond acceded (1108) to Byzantine Emperor Alexius I, Tancred refused to surrender his conquerings or to do the emperor homage.