Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Godfrey of Bouillon

July 17, 2010

Godfrey of Bouillon (1060-1100), the French crusader was one of the principal lay leaders of the First Crusade and the first ruler of the new formed crusader state of Jerusalem.

He was the second son of the Count of Boulogne (Eustace II), and Ida, daughter of the Duke of Lower Lorraine (Godfrey II). After years of hold up Emperor Henry IV eventually affirmed him in the duchy of Lower Lorraine. When he and his brothers, Eustace and Baldwin, joined the First Crusade, Godfrey was even so accommodated to assurance his castle in Bouillon, also the lordship of Verdun, to the bishop of Liège, presumptively to help finance the dispatch.

The crusaders arrived at Constantinople shortly before Christmas Day, 1096. For many months there were promises and perfidies and armed brushes with the Byzantine flocks. Finally the totally force of crusaders, now big by the Norman contingent and Bohemund’s army, crossed the Bosporus and set out for Nicaea. When Jerusalem was appropriated in July 1099, the higher clergy and the bigger barons offered the crown to Godfrey, having failed to convince Count Raymond to take it. Godfrey acceptable the leadership but arrogated alternatively the title of Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri (Defender of the Holy Sepulcher). This made him lay guarantor of the newly won lands, allowing for the Church to preserve, initially, its own concerns. The ecclesiastic claims to Jerusalem and its dependant towns were boosted by the forceful Daimbert, Archbishop of Pisa, who, backed by Bohemund, became patriarch a abruptly time later. Godfrey, who in reality had little effectual power, acquired an oath of homage to Daimbert and managed to retain hold of his small state till his death on July 18, 1100, near Tiberias. Agreeing to Moslem sources, he was killed in combat.

Godfrey was the first european ruler in Jerusalem, and this doubtless aided form the legend in later literature in which he was transmuted into the model for the valorous Christian knight, the Chevalier au Cygne (Swan Knight). Dante, in the Divine Comedy, bases him with the warrior-saints in Paradise. There is, yet, no reliable attest for his unusual piety or for his extraordinary knightly qualities. His chief achievement remains the administration of a executable feudal brass in Jerusalem based on accustomed fief holding and oaths of allegiance. That he was capable to do this in the face of overt and continual hostility from allies and enemies tells much about the character of the man.


July 17, 2010

Bohemond (1050-1111) was the nickname, intending ‘Giant’, of Marc, firstborn son of Robert Guiscard who disinherited him afterward a second marriage. Bohemond served in Guiscard’s expedition versus Byzantium in 1083-5. His engagement in the First Crusade has been ascertained as the act of a baffled man but he delighted a strong attitude in southern Italy. The only leader of the Crusade to have compelled a major regular army, he distinguished himself militarily, fighting well at Dorylaeum on 1 July 1097, ensuring the defeat of a Damascene assuagement army in December 1097, and compelling at the Lake battle on 2 February 1098. He entered Antioch by betrayal on 1-2 June 1098 and led the crusaders to victory across Kerbogah on 28 July 1098. Because he kept Antioch, opposed to the curse of all the leaders to return it to Byzantium, and didn’t advance to Jerusalem, he has been ascertained as a cynical user of the crusade, as yet he visited Jerusalem at Christmas Day 1099.

In 1100 he was appropriated by the Turks. Discharged in 1103, he faced Byzantine attempts to regain Antioch, so he aroused a crusade in the West which attacked Byzantium in 1107. He was defeated and coerced to peace by the accord of Devol in September 1108, though Antioch stayed under his nephew Tancred. He died in southern Italy.

Raymond IV of Toulouse

July 17, 2010

Raymond IV (1038-1105), count of Toulouse (1093-1105), leader in the First Crusade. He was as well count of Saint Gilles and marquis of Provence. The first big prince to carry the Cross, he was the chief contriver and arranger of the expedition. He declined to follow Bohemond I and Godfrey of Bouillon in affirming fealty to the Byzantine emperor Alexius I, bounding himself to a anticipate (1097) to do no injury to the emperor’s life or honor. Raymond distinguished himself at the sieges of Nicaea, Antioch, and Jerusalem, but altercated (in vain) with Bohemond over the possession of Antioch. Having declined the title king of Jerusalem, he fought at Ashkelon (1099). Unable to protect his city of Laodicea versus Bohemond, he went to Constantinople to look for the aid of Alexius. After he was controlled prisoner by Tancred, who was acting as regent for Bohemond. At the end of his life, with Byzantine abide, he laid besieging to Tripoli, which was eventually formed into a county by his descendents.


July 17, 2010

Baldwin (1058 – 1118), a Norman cognised earlier as Baldwin of Boulogne and a head lay leader of the First Crusade, ruled as king of Jerusalem (1100 – 1118).

Baldwin conjoined the First Crusade with his brothers, Eustace and Godfrey of Bouillon. Baldwin shortly departed the primary army to constitute himself in Edessa (New Urfa, Turkey), a Byzantine town on the far side of the Euphrates River, at the invitation of the Armenian prince Thoros. Upon the latter’s death in 1098 Baldwin got head of the first crusading state in the East. His wife, Godvere of Tosni, died briefly before this successful adventure, and Baldwin soon attested his location by marrying an Armenian princess called Arda.

As Godfrey of Bouillon died in 1100, a group of military knights in Jerusalem enquired Baldwin to succeed him. This sequence was contradicted by the patriarch Daimbert, who willed to assert his ecclesiastic control of the city, and by the crusader Tancred, who was fishy of the use to which Baldwin might assign his new power. It is declarative of Baldwin’s durability that not only did he force Daimbert to crown him king (albeit in Bethlehem, not in Jerusalem), but he also kept Tancred at a distance till the latter departed the following year to accept the lordship of Antioch. In 1102 Baldwin deponed Daimbert, and his heirs were all royal appointments.

Baldwin then set about to make his military attitude more ensure. He had little efficient power until he was capable to hold the coastal towns, which were critical for communications and adds. He depended intemperately on the loyalty of the vassals of the big fiefs, such Tiberias, Haifa, and Caesarea, and to a lesser extent on mercenary flocks and ships from the Italian cities. Once controlled of the oaths of his knights, Baldwin embarked on a systematic decrease of the ports so that by 1113 he held all the significant ones in the locality of Jerusalem except Ascalon and Tyre. Although he still opposed Tancred, Baldwin wasn’t above conjoining him on leastwise 2 affairs, in 1109 and in 1112, when conservation of the kingdom made cooperation advisable.

Through 1113 Baldwin abandoned Queen Arda for (Adelaide of Salona), Countess of Sicily and mother of (Count Roger II). The historian is accommodated to see this as a political marriage which added a dowry and maybe an heir to the kingdom, since Roger II was called as successor. Baldwin had never been divorced of his previous wife, even so, and three years later he sanctioned the abrogation of his union with Adelaide at the price of the enmity of the Sicilian court. Baldwin died close Ascalon on a raiding military expedition in Egypt in April 1118. His heir in Jerusalem was his cousin, Baldwin II.

Baldwin I was an telling figure. By his personal authority, with bounded resources, and in the face of constant and powerful confrontation from Cairo, Damascus, and his own assorts, he accomplished and asserted the kingdom of Jerusalem for eighteen years.


July 17, 2010

Tancred (1076-1112), western Crusader in the first crusade. He got a Crusader in 1096 with his uncle Bohemond I. After distinguishing himself at Nicaea, he crossed out into Cilicia and beleaguered Tarsus, but was divested of the city, after its return, by Baldwin (Baldwin I of Jerusalem) and was forced to come back the main army. He participated in the appropriates of Antioch (1098), Jerusalem (1099), and Haifa (1100) and was for a abruptly time prince of Galilee, with his capital at Tiberias. While working (1100-1103) as trustee of Antioch for Bohemond, he retook Laodicea and additional towns and captive Raymond IV of Toulouse. In 1104, after the appropriate of Baldwin II of Jerusalem by the Muslims, he absorbed the government of Edessa and, after the deviation of Bohemond for the West, the governance of Antioch. He after made copious conquerings in Cilicia and Northern Syria. Whilst Bohemond acceded (1108) to Byzantine Emperor Alexius I, Tancred refused to surrender his conquerings or to do the emperor homage.

William of Tyre

June 27, 2010

William, the archbishop of Tyre, chancellor of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, and historian of the last century of the kingdom before its come down to Sultan Saladin in 1187, that was William of Tyre (1130-1184).

William was Born in the crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem, William of Tyre as well arose up there. Also the French language, he assumed a cognition of Eastern languages: Arabic, Greek, Hebrew, and Persian language. These abided him in good place in his later life history. William’s parents were credibly of abase origin, but William’s scholastic aptitude made him a likely candidate for the priesthood. He got a protégé of the archbishop of Tyre, and was sent sometime before 1163 to Europe, belike to study law.

Between 1163 and 1167 William was a canyon in the cathedral Christian church of Tyre. In 1167 he was elect by King Amalric to get the historian of the kingdom and was advanced to archdeacon of Tyre. William traveled to Rome and Constantinople in the following few years before being appointive tutor to Amalric’s son Baldwin (later King Baldwin IV) in 1170. On Amalric’s death William contrived to stop writing, but the accession of Count Raymond III of Tripoli added William the assignment of chancellor of the kingdom, and in 1175 he was attained archbishop of Tyre.

By 1176, William was absorbed in delicacy as well as in his official obligations as chancellor and historian. William attended the Third Lateran Council in Italy in 1178, but from then on he became lower powerful as the court connives which surrounded the dying young king Baldwin IV acted him further from centers of actual power. William now centered upon the writing of his history as the pandemonium of the court of Jerusalem started to reveal that inner failing which would make it vulnerable to Saladin’s attacks some years later. William’s history in this period got more than a royally accredited work. From 1180 on, William wrote with a skill and tragic in view which few historians have exceeded.

William’s use of documents in dissimilar languages, his lack of diagonal towards the men of different religious belief and races whose accomplishes he described, his adumbrate knowledge of political and diplomatic issues, and his skill as a Latin prose writer bestowed to the enormousness of his History of Deeds Done beyond the Sea. Toward the close of his life, when he felt the external and internal threats to the endurance of the kingdom, William’s comment and narrative rise to eloquent altitudes of political tragedy. His sober account of the correct of the crusading kingdom is accosted not only to posterity but to all of the Christian world. William’s work was continued and interpreted in his own time, and it has been wide used since and is still of immense concern, not only to master historians but to students of history also. It is the primary historical narrative contemporary with the last years of the Latin Kingdom and is an fantabulous example of the best twelfth century chronicle writing way.

The better account of William’s life, along with a accomplished listing of source materials coming to his works, is in the creation to his History of Deeds Done beyond the Sea, interpreted by Emily Atwater Babcock and A. C. Krey (two vols about 1941/1943).

Read about the Primary Sources of the Crusades:

Letters of the Crusaders:

Letters of the First Crusade: Anselme of Ribemont …
Letters of the First Crusade: Stephen, Count of Bl…
Letters of the First Crusade: From Daimbert, Godfr…
Letters of the Crusaders of the First Crusade:
Letters of the Second Crusade: letter from Conrad …
Letters of the Second Crusade: Another letter from…
Letters of the Crusaders of the Second Crusade
Letters of the Crusaders: Letter from Aymeric, Pat…
Letters of the Crusaders: Letter from the East to …
Letters of the Third Crusade: Letter from Frederic…
Letters of the Third Crusade: Letter from Sibylla,…
Letters of the Third Crusade:
Letters of the Crusaders: Letter from Duke of Lorr…
Letters of the Sixth Crusade: Letter from Frederic…
Letters of the Sixth Crusade: Letter from Gerold, …
Letters of the Sixth Crusade: Letter from the Mast…
Letters of the Sixth Crusade: Letter from Guy, a c…
Letters of the Sixth Crusade
Other Letters from the Crusaders

The Ninth Crusade

May 15, 2010

The Ninth Crusade, which is some of the times sorted with the 8th Crusade, is generally regarded to be the final major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land. It came about in 1271–1272.

Louis IX of France’s nonstarter to capture Tunis in the 8th Crusade chaired Prince Edward of England to canvas to Acre in what is called the Ninth Crusade. The 9th Crusade betrayed mostly since the Crusading feeling was almost “nonextant,” and since of the arising power of the Mamluks in Egypt. It also augured the imminent break of the last resting crusader fastnesses along the Mediterranean seashore.

The next Edward I of England attempted another military expedition against Baibars in 1271, afterward having attended Louis on the 8th Crusade. Louis died in Tunisia. The 9th Crusade was held a bankruptcy and ceased the Crusades in the Middle East.

In their after years, confronted with the menace of the Egyptian Mamluks, the Crusaders’ desires breathed with a Franco-Mongol alignment. The Ilkhanate’s Mongols were believed to be appealing to Christianity, and the Frankish princes were most efficient in accumulating their assist, directing their encroachments of the Middle East on a lot of affairs.[citation demanded] though the Mongols with success attacked as far to the south as Damascus on these campaigns, the power to in effect align with Crusades from the west was repeatedly bedeviled almost notably at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. The Mamluks finally made beneficial their assurance to clean the intact Middle East of the Franks. With the fall of Antioch (1268), Tripoli (1289), and Acre (1291), those Christians unable to depart the cities were slaughtered or enslaved and the last deciphers of Christian rule in the Levant vanished.


Seventh Crusade (1248-1250)

Other Crusades:

First Crusade 1095-1099
Second Crusade 1147-1149
The Third Crusade
Fourth Crusade 1204
Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE)
The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem
Summary of The Major Crusades


Eighth Crusade (1267-1272)

May 5, 2010

The close major crusade aspired at the Holy Land, and an failure that well represents the end of the crusades. In the previous twenty years, the continuing crusader states had get progressively powerless hocks while surges of Mongol and then Mameluke conquests broomed across the area. Louis IX of France, in an attempt to restore the situation, adjudicated to go back on crusade afterward about 20 years, but lead astray by the idea that the Bey of Tunis could be changed to Christianity, he decided to land first in Tunisia, so marching across Egypt to the Holy Land. Even so, once he went far in Tunisia, it was clear that this was not the case, and he had to besiege Tunis. Louis then died in an epidemic, to be substituted by his brother Charles of Anjou, king of Sicily, and a reluctant crusader, who negotiated conditions with the Bey, who paid protection to him and France, afterwards which the crusade ceased.

Afterward the crusade was concluded, the future Edward I of England arrived, and finding the crusade across, traveled on himself to the Holy Land, where the cogent crusader fort of Krak had just been becharmed by Baibars, wherever he agitated until 1272, when the death of his beginner Henry III coerced him to return to England. The crusading epoch in the Holy Land ceased in 1291, with the fall of Acre, the last crusader bag in Palestine.

Seventh Crusade (1248-1250)

May 5, 2010

Disastrous French people crusade, led by Louis IX, a response to the deprivation of Jerusalem (1244) to the Moslems for the concluding time. The crusade was aspired at Egypt, the briny Muslim power in the region. Louse sailed in 1248, wintered on Cyprus, before acting against Damietta at the mouth of the Nile, which they absorbed with ease at the start of June, doing a scare amongst the Egyptian army. Even so, Louis then decided to wait till the autumn to annul the heat of summer, and the inundation of the Nile, but this delay was of more reward to Sultan Malik-al-Salih, who before his death lately in the year was able to bushel the effectiveness of his regular army.

The Crusaders tardily processed toward Cairo, but were arrested near Mansura, on the Ashmoun Canal, at the same aim where the Fifth Crusade had strike a halt. The Egyptians had about 70,000 men, as the crusade had only started with 60,000. For two months the two armies faced each other crosswise the canal, Louis assaying to build up a causeway, as the Egyptians merely dug away the far bank, broadening the canal. The impasse was bettered by the battle of Mansura (8 February 1250). Using a crossing four miles up the canal, Louis brought off to get his cavalry crossed the river. The Egyptians were completely surprised, but the commander of the advance defend, Louis’s brother Robert of Artois, disobeyed his arranges, which were simply to adjudge the canal bank contrary the causeway till the chief body of the army dismissed. Instead, he accused into the town of Mansura, and was killed along with all but of his cavalry. Louis now ascertained himself confronted with the entire foe army, and only the eventual reaching of the infantry across a improvised bridge forbade his death or appropriate.

The crusaders at once had a bridgehead crosswise the canal, but were too attenuate to hold it, and Louis was forced to order a retreat back to Damietta. Through March 1250 his army backed away under blackjack, until the Egyptians were prepare to attack. At last, at the battle of Fariskur (6 April 1250), the Egyptians broke the French foot, now being the vast majority of the crusaders. Louis was captured, and only brought out in May after agreeing to pay a 800,000 gold livre redeem. While the few continuing crusaders came back to France, Louis navigated to Acre wherever he absorbed in four years of bootless diplomacy, before eventually deserting the crusade and coming back to France.

Route of Emperor Frederick II

May 5, 2010

As it is debated that the Sixth Crusade was the almost successful, it was surely the most strange. The leader at this crusade was Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. He had primitively planned on connecting the Fifth Crusade, but backed off because of sickness.

In 1227, afterward Gregory IX got pope, Frederick and his army bent cruise from Brindisi for Syria, but an epidemic coerced Frederick to take back to Italy. Gregory adopted this chance to curse Frederick for breaking his crusader consecrate, though this was barely an apologise, as Frederick had for years been assaying to consolidate imperial power in Italy at the disbursal of the papacy. Frederick tried to negotiate with the pope, but finally determined to brush off him, and navigated to Syria in 1228 contempt the censure, arriving at Acre in September.